As the world moves towards adopting renewable energy as its primary energy source, one emerging concern is energy storage. While current batteries, mostly built around lithium-ion technologies, are playing an integral role in the transition, their limitations aren’t sufficient to enable a full-scale transition to renewable energy.

The main challenge with current battery technologies is that they fall under the short-duration energy storage (SDES) spectrum, lasting four hours or less per charge. In terms of grid-level energy requirements, they are not a viable replacement for coal and diesel plants. What is a viable replacement is the holy grail of clean energy tech, long-duration energy storage or LDES, which, in theory, should deliver energy for 24 hours to several days on a single charge. Pundits believe such batteries, supplied at scale and affordably, will completely replace fossil-fuel-powered power plants.

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